Auschwitz was the largest and deadliest of six dedicated extermination camps where hundreds of thousands of people were tortured and murdered during World War II and the Holocaust …
Shoes from victims of genocide at the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz. Emily Langer / The Washington Post via Getty Images Left: Tatiana Bucci (left) and Andra Bucci (right) after their liberation from Auschwitz and their reunification with their parents in in 1946. Right: Mira and Giovanni Bucci on their wedding in 1935.
The Auschwitz concentration camp was located on the outskirts of Oświęcim in German-occupied Poland. It was originally established in 1940 and later referred to as "Auschwitz I" or "Main Camp." The Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center, also referred to as "Auschwitz II," was located near the Polish village Brzezinka (German: Birkenau).
KL Auschwitz was the largest of the German Nazi concentration camps and extermination centers. Over 1.1 million men, women and children lost their lives here.
In 1940, the Nazis built a camp called Auschwitz, located about 37 miles west of Kraków, Poland, to imprison Soviet prisoners of war and Polish resisters. In October 1941, the Nazis built a second camp there, known as Auschwitz II, or Auschwitz-Birkenau. With four large crematoria (including gas chambers and ovens to cremate victims’ bodies), Auschwitz-Birkenau became the largest of the killing centers built by the Nazis.
According to various estimates, between 1.2 and 1.6 million people lost their lives in Auschwitz. Auschwitz became the symbol of the Nazis' „final solution to the Jewish question“, a symbol of Nazi inhumanity and genocide.
One key to its role in Holocaust education is that from 1942 to 1944, Auschwitz became the largest of those killing centers. Of the approximately 1.3 million people who were deported to Auschwitz...Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins
During the Holocaust, concentration camp prisoners received tattoos only at one location, the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. The Auschwitz camp complex consisted of Auschwitz I (Main Camp), Auschwitz II (Auschwitz-Birkenau), and Auschwitz III (Monowitz and the subcamps). Tags. Auschwitz. occupied Poland.
The overcrowding in Auschwitz I forced basements and lofts into use as living quarters, as well. Two types of barracks, brick and wooden, housed prisoners in Birkenau concentration camp. The brick buildings were erected in great haste, without suitable insulation, on marshy ground.
Monowitz (also known as Monowitz-Buna, Buna and Auschwitz III) was a Nazi concentration camp and labor camp (Arbeitslager) run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and the Holocaust. For most of its existence, Monowitz was a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp; from November 1943 it and other Nazi subcamps in the area were jointly known as "Auschwitz ...
Located in southern Poland, Auschwitz initially served as a detention center for political prisoners. By July the prisoner population was over 11,, most of whom were Jews. Because of mistreatment, starvation, and disease, almost all these 10, Soviet prisoners died within months of arrival. In the spring of , German conglomerate I. For your security, we've sent a confirmation email to the address you entered. From A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. At least 3, prisoners died on route to Gliwice alone. Praha: Svoboda, Mira, who was Jewish, was deported with the couple's two daughters, Andra and Tatiana, to Auschwitz in Testimonies of Auschwitz SS-Men. Blechhammer was a subcamp of Auschwitz-Monowitz. New online lesson about the fate of children in Auschwitz. Tags Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics. Featured Content. Dachau Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp, opened in , shortly after Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany. Between July and April , the Nazis imprisoned a quarter-million people at Buchenwald, with a death toll of around 56, New temporary exhibition at the Memorial. In January , with the Soviet army approaching, Nazi officials ordered the camp abandoned and sent an estimated 60, prisoners on a forced march to other locations. Our passivity is the greatest source of victims. Number of Victims It is estimated that the SS and police deported at least 1. The Nuremberg Trials. On the basis of an order signed by Himmler on the 29th of January , approximately 20 Roma were also deported to Auschwitz. Completed in September , it was located in a secluded, wet, and wooded area west of the small town of Sztutowo in the Freie Stadt Danzig area. Prisoners spent over ten hours per day working, and the rest of the time was taken up by long roll-call assemblies, lining up for food rations or a place in the latrines or the washroom, removing dirt and pests from clothing, and disinfection. The post-camp relics are protected by the Museum created in Toman Brod, born Testimony of Mrs. Tags Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics. The prisoners put up various forms of resistance to the tyranny of the camp. The first inmates - mostly Polish political prisoners - were brought there in June and were used for slave labour. See Also Article Auschwitz. The prisoners selected for slave labour were sent to one of the many auxiliary camps at Auschwitz or elsewhere in the Nazi concentration camp system. A group of specially chosen German common criminal capos were sent to Monowice. In reports sent from Monowice to the corporate headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, Maximilian Faust, an engineer in charge of construction stated in these reports that the only way to keep the prisoners' productivity at a satisfactory level was through violence and corporal punishment. Get our History Newsletter. This allowed more tourists to visit Auschwitz, which was by then the Holocaust site with which many were most familiar; in , a record 2. More than 1, other prisoners died in the hospital at Monowice, and many were shot at the construction site or hanged at the camp. In April , the U. The bunks in the women's barracks at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. From the end of March , Jewish transports from Nazi-ruled countries flowed into Auschwitz. Auschwitz also had a further 45 auxiliary camps, where prisoners were forced to engage in slave labour, mostly for German companies. The Germans started construction on Auschwitz-Birkenau in Hundreds of prosthetic limbs. On the 27th of January , the Red Army entered the camp link in Czech. The Memorial acquired original documents of the second part of the so-called Eiss Archive. The camp authorities assigned more than , prisoner serial numbers not counting approximately 3, numbers given to police prisoners interned at Auschwitz due to overcrowding in jails who were not included in the daily count of prisoners. Key Facts. Museums are thus playing an important role in making sure these stories still get told through artifacts like personal belongings, video testimonies and even as holograms. In front of it stood the black wall , the site of frequent executions. Ptak 23 September All the rebels died. Basic Books August Between July and October there was a pause in transports, due to a typhus epidemic and quarantine. The rail journey lasted for days.
Tourists stand between the snow-covered concrete steles of Berlin's Holocaust Memorial on Jan. The camp was liberated by the Soviet army on Jan. A pile of flowers lay beneath the 'death wall' inside the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Left: Tatiana Bucci left and Andra Bucci right after their liberation from Auschwitz and their reunification with their parents in in Right: Mira and Giovanni Bucci on their wedding in Mira, who was Jewish, was deported with the couple's two daughters, Andra and Tatiana, to Auschwitz in Auschwitz and Belsen concentration camp survivor Eva Behar shows her prisoner number that was tattooed on her arm by her Nazi captors. Victim memorials in a cell at the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany. A hook projects its shadow on the wall in the "Strangling Room," called Leichenkeller corpse cellar by the Nazis, in the basement of the crematorium in Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany, where 1, prisoners were garroted and hanged by the SS. The camp, established by the Nazis in , was one of the first and the largest on German soil, housing some , prisoners between and The gas "shower" at Majdanek concentration camp in Lublin, Poland. The Majdanek concentration camp was a death camp built in by orders of the commander of the SS, Heinrich Himmler. A single white rose sits on a dissection table in the pathology department at the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany. Relics found at a former rubbish dump are displayed as part of the historical exhibition at former concentration camp Buchenwald. Between July and April , the Nazis imprisoned a quarter-million people at Buchenwald, with a death toll of around 56, Buchenwald was liberated on April 11, by US troops. A death roll from the concentration camp Buchenwald that reads "auf der Flucht erschossen," "shot while attempting to flee. An open-air mass cremation place in former Nazi German concentration camp Stutthof in Sztutowo, Poland. Stutthof was the first Nazi concentration camp built outside of Germany. Completed in September , it was located in a secluded, wet, and wooded area west of the small town of Sztutowo in the Freie Stadt Danzig area. Raised mounds marking some of the 13 mass graves at the site of the former Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Lower Saxony, Germany. Contact Gabriel H. Sanchez at gabriel. Got a confidential tip? Submit it here. A BuzzFeed News investigation, in partnership with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, based on thousands of documents the government didn't want you to see. Shoes from victims of genocide at the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz. Star worn by Jewish prisoners at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany. Gallows where prisoners were executed at Fort Breendonk, Belgium. Glasses that belonged to people brought to Auschwitz for extermination. Manacles and leg irons on display at the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany. The bunks in the women's barracks at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. The interior of the gas chambers at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Crematorium chambers in the former Majdanek Nazi concentration camp.
Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains. Tens of thousands of prisoners, mostly Jews, were forced to march either northwest for 55 kilometers approximately 30 miles to Gliwice Gleiwitz or due west for 63 kilometers approximately 35 miles to Wodzislaw Loslau in the western part of Upper Silesia. The prisoners returned to the construction site in May and worked there until 21 July, when an outbreak of typhus in the main camp and Birkenau stopped their trips to work. Those who were not sent directly to gas chambers were sentenced to forced labor. One key to its role in Holocaust education is that from to , Auschwitz became the largest of those killing centers. Some subcamps, such as Freudenthal and Bruenn Brno , were located in Moravia. See also: The gypsy camp at Auschwitz. There, I was separated from my sister and mother and put into a barracks with older boys—many seemed to be twins. IG Farbenindustrie AG. More than 40 smaller facilities, called subcamps, dotted the landscape and served as slave-labor camps. Completed in September , it was located in a secluded, wet, and wooded area west of the small town of Sztutowo in the Freie Stadt Danzig area. Central Issues in the History of the Camp. The authentic Memorial consists of two parts of the former camp: Auschwitz and Birkenau. All the rebels died. In order to avoid the assignment of excessively high numbers from the general series to the large number of Hungarian Jews arriving in , the SS authorities introduced new sequences of numbers in mid-May Not long ago. Retrieved 18 July A total of prisoners escaped from Auschwitz, but of them were caught in the vicinity of the camp and immediately executed. About , Auschwitz prisoners left the camp, including survivors sent to other camps as well as those liberated from Auschwitz when the Soviet Army rescued an estimated 7, prisoners on Jan. The plant construction was commissioned by the Italian State interested in importing nitrile rubber Buna-N from IG Farben after the collapse of its own synthetic oil production. This Day In History. The SS destroyed the remaining gassing installations as Soviet forces approached in January But today, as the number of these survivors dwindles , education about Auschwitz will have to enter a new phase. Eighty-eight pounds of eyeglasses. Initially, they worked at building the camp: leveling the ground, erecting new blocks and buildings, laying roads, and digging drainage ditches. A death roll from the concentration camp Buchenwald that reads "auf der Flucht erschossen," "shot while attempting to flee. People of Auschwitz. Dachau Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp, opened in , shortly after Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany. Visitor Information. The German IG Farbenindustrie cartel, which built the Buna-Werke synthetic rubber and fuel factory at Monowice near Oswiecim, had priority in obtaining prisoner labor. It features more than original objects, including major loans from the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum that had never been seen outside of Poland before the exhibition firm Musealia first produced the show in Madrid from December to February Category Commons. Monowitz in occupied Poland. Auschwitz Environs. It was a frigid day in occupied Poland, and for all Shmuel Beller knew, it could be his last. Levi, Primo. Farben set up a synthetic rubber factory there, in which it used the prisoners' slave labour. By July the prisoner population was over 11,, most of whom were Jews. For Teachers Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust. Between July and October there was a pause in transports, due to a typhus epidemic and quarantine. The German armaments manufacturer Krupp , headed by SS member Alfried Krupp , also built their own manufacturing facilities near Monowitz. Over 1. Thank you for supporting our work We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. An estimated 70, to 80, Poles perished at the camp, along with 19, to 20, Romas and smaller numbers of Soviet prisoners of war and other individuals. In spring , the SS began systematically tattooing all incoming Jewish prisoners. Located in German-occupied Poland, Auschwitz consisted of three camps including a killing center. Subcamps whose prisoners were deployed at industrial and armaments production or in extractive industries e.
The largest of its kind, the Auschwitz camp complex was essential to carrying out the Nazi plan for the "Final Solution. Located in German-occupied Poland, Auschwitz consisted of three camps including a killing center. The camps were opened over the course of nearly two years, Auschwitz closed in January with its liberation by the Soviet army. More than 1. Those who were not sent directly to gas chambers were sentenced to forced labor. The Auschwitz complex differed from the other Nazi killing centers because it included a concentration camp and a labor camp as well as large gas chambers and crematoria at Birkenau constructed for the mass murder of European Jews. Germany annexed this area of Poland in It was originally established in and later referred to as "Auschwitz I" or "Main Camp. This is about 2 miles just over 3 km from the Main Camp. The Germans started construction on Auschwitz-Birkenau in This is about 4 miles approximately 6. The Germans initially established the Buna subcamp there in In , it became a concentration camp. The Auschwitz camp complex also included numerous subcamps. The majority of these subcamps were located in the region around Auschwitz. It is estimated that the SS and police deported at least 1. Of these deportees, approximately 1. The best estimates of the number of victims at the Auschwitz camp complex, including the killing center at Auschwitz-Birkenau, between and are:. During the Holocaust , concentration camp prisoners received tattoos only at one location, Auschwitz. Incoming prisoners were assigned a camp serial number which was sewn to their prison uniforms. Only those prisoners selected for work were issued serial numbers; those prisoners sent directly to the gas chambers were not registered and received no tattoos. Auschwitz I, the main camp, was the first camp established near Oswiecim. Construction began in April in an abandoned Polish army barracks in a suburb of the city. SS authorities continuously used prisoners for forced labor to expand the camp. On May 20, , the first prisoners arrived at Auschwitz. The transport consisted of some 30 German inmates, categorized as "professional criminals. Less than a month later, on June 14, German authorities in occupied Poland deported Polish prisoners from a prison in Tarnow to Auschwitz. This was the first of many transports of Poles to the Auschwitz camp. Like most German concentration camps, Auschwitz I was constructed for three purposes:. Like some concentration camps, Auschwitz I had a gas chamber and crematorium. Initially, SS engineers constructed an improvised gas chamber in the basement of the prison block, Block Later a larger, permanent gas chamber was constructed as part of the original crematorium in a separate building outside the prisoner compound. They conducted pseudoscientific research on infants, twins, and dwarfs, and performed forced sterilizations and castrations of adults. The best-known of these physicians was SS Captain Dr. Josef Mengele. Rather, it was his participation in the killing process—indeed his supervision of Auschwitz mass murder from beginning to end. Between the medical-experiments barrack and the prison block Block 11 stood the "Black Wall," where SS guards executed thousands of prisoners. Of the three camps established near Oswiecim, the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp had the largest total prisoner population. It was divided into ten sections separated by electrified barbed-wire fences. The camp included sections for women; men; a family camp for Roma Gypsies deported from Germany, Austria, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; and a family camp for Jewish families deported from the Theresienstadt ghetto. Auschwitz-Birkenau was also a killing center and played a central role in the German effort to kill the Jews of Europe. Bunker I began operating in spring , the larger Bunker II in mid-summer These gassing facilities soon proved inadequate for the task of murdering the large numbers of Jewish deportees being sent to Auschwitz. Between March and June , four large crematoria were built within Auschwitz-Birkenau, each with a gas chamber, a disrobing area, and crematory ovens. Gassing of newly arrived transports ceased at Auschwitz by early November Jewish deportees arriving at Auschwitz-Birkenau immediately underwent selection. The SS staff chose some of the able-bodied for forced labor and sent the rest directly to the gas chambers, which were disguised as shower installations to mislead the victims. The belongings of all deportees were confiscated and sorted in the "Kanada" Canada warehouse for shipment back to Germany. Canada symbolized wealth to the prisoners. Trains arrived at Auschwitz frequently with transports of Jews from virtually every country in Europe occupied by or allied to Germany. These transports arrived from early to early November The approximate breakdown of deportations from individual countries:.