He was of Welsh descent and was born as Hari [i.e. Harry] Morgan. Little is known of his youth and much of his later life is a combination of myth and truth. What is known is that he was considered the "Terror of the Caribbean" from the time of his commissioning as a privateer in 1662 until 1683 when he retired.Place Of Birth: Cardiff, Wales
One of the Most Successful Pirates of All Time. Sir Henry Morgan was a famous Caribbean pirate and privateer. He was one of the most successful pirates of all time. Although very little is known about Morgan's early life, he was supposedly born in 1635. Sometime in the 1650's, Morgan made his way to Jamaica, where his uncle was lieutenant governor.
Destruction of the Spanish fleet on Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela by Henry Morgan, April 30, 1669. In 1666 he was made Colonel of the Port Royal Militia and elected Admiral by his fellow privateers. The ‘king of the privateers’ was then appointed Commander-in-chief of all Jamaican forces in 1669, and by 1670 he had 36 ships and 1800 men under his command.
Sir Henry Morgan was a noted Welsh privateer who became a plantation owner and also served as the lieutenant-governor of Jamaica thrice. A friend of the then-governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas Modyford, Morgan received a letter of marque from Modyford, thereby gaining the license to attack and capture Spanish vessels after diplomatic relations between Spain and England strained in 1667.
Aug 21, 2021 · Sir Henry Morgan, (born 1635, Llanrhymney, Glamorgan [now in Cardiff], Wales—died August 25, 1688, probably Lawrencefield, Jamaica), Welsh buccaneer, most famous of the adventurers who plundered Spain’s Caribbean colonies during the late 17th century. Operating with the unofficial support of the English government, he undermined Spanish authority in the West Indies.
Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. 1635 – August 25, 1688) was a Welsh privateer, who made a name in the Caribbean as a leader of buccaneers. He considered himself a patriot to his home country, England. His actions changed the face of history in the Americas.
Jan 15, 2019 · Henry Morgan is often thought of as a pirate, which is understandable. He's associated with bottles of rum. The Captain Morgan logo depicts him wearing a pirate-y hat and a pirate-y coat and practically yo-ho-ho-ing at you with his pirate-y eyes.Author: A. C. Grimes
Dec 02, 2020 · http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgan. (ca. 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh Admiral and privateer, who made a name for activities in the Caribbean. He was one of the most notorious and successful privateers from Wales, and one of the most dangerous pirates who worked in the Spanish Main. Henry Morgan was reportedly the oldest son of Robert Morgan, a squire of …Parents: Margaret Fowler, Robert Morgan, Sr.
Whether you're an avid rum-chugger or a massive teetotaler, you've probably heard of 17th-century knight and nautical conqueror Sir Henry Morgan, better known as Captain Morgan. The rum that bears his name has been around since and originated in Jamaica, a nation Morgan invaded and where he later served as lieutenant governor. You may have also heard the Captain Morgan rum slogan: "Got a little Captain in you? But even if you never get a little captain in you, you can still get fascinating info about him. So sit back with a glass of your favorite beverage and read the untold truth of the real Captain Morgan. Henry Morgan is often thought of as a pirate , which is understandable. He's associated with bottles of rum. The Captain Morgan logo depicts him wearing a pirate-y hat and a pirate-y coat and practically yo-ho-ho-ing at you with his pirate-y eyes. The logo's creator, Don Maitz, studied pirates for years and considered Morgan a pirate. Plus, the real-life Morgan commanded a band of Caribbean pirates called the Brethren of the Coast. However, he wasn't a pirate, at least not most of the time. Technically, he was a privateer, which was like a pirate , "only legal. In exchange for being a royal pain in Spain's backside, he kept whatever booty he looted. Some privateers even became pirates in peacetime. However, between and the difference between pirates and privateers became more pronounced as war grew more organized. Morgan was primarily active during the s and s. Privateers were increasingly incorporated into naval strategies, and Britain in particular viewed privateering as a state-sanctioned business practice. Meanwhile, "piracy became ever less tolerated" because of its damaging impact on trade. It's believed that Henry Morgan was born around in Wales, and he definitely died in in Jamaica. But the specifics of his lineage and how he ended up in the Caribbean are unclear. Surgeon Alexandre Exquemelin, who joined Morgan on his journeys, wrote that Morgan's father was "a well-to-do farmer. There's no convincing evidence of this connection, which even the U. National Trust acknowledges despite celebrating Morgan's supposed ties. It's also possible that he married a woman whose father was related to the Morgans of Tredegar. As for how he reached the Caribbean, Exquemelin alleged that Morgan took to the sea to escape the agrarian lifestyle but was abducted and sold into indentured servitude. After completing his service, he supposedly joined the voyages of buccaneers and made his way to Jamaica. In an alternative account summarized by the University of Georgia's Classic Journal , he went to the Caribbean voluntarily to help Oliver Cromwell conquer Spanish colonies. Morgan outright denied ever being kidnapped and sold, and later characterized many of Exquemelin's claims about him as libelous. However a record of indentured servants from that period lists a Henry Morgan from Wales. Professor Williams didn't think so. Many people associate Jamaica with Bob Marley and marijuana. But the Jamaican Information Service likens the island to "a woman with a history" who "lived her life rapidly" and had "incalculable treasures poured into her lap by the old time buccaneer pirates. In , Morgan and his fierce buccaneers aided England's effort to seize Jamaica, which had been in Spain's possession since Christopher Columbus claimed it in But for as tough as the buccaneers were, they mostly got their butts kicked. There was little consideration of how perilous it would be, and Morgan and his men went through hell. As detailed in the book Henry Morgan , they were ravaged by an army of tropical diseases, including smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever. Things got even more complicated when they ran out of cattle to eat. Spanish snipers prevented Morgan and co. Morgan survived his trial by gunfire and would later be named Jamaica's lieutenant governor. Captain Morgan's various exploits led to legendary showdowns at sea. Espinosa cornered Morgan in Maracaibo, Venezuela, then a Spanish territory. As recounted in Chronological History of the West Indies , Morgan had entered the city unimpeded and rooted out frightened, hiding residents, whereupon he tortured them into divulging where their loot was. Before Morgan could depart, Espinosa arrived with three heavily armed warships and ordered Morgan to release his prisoners and relinquish his loot or prepare to get wrecked. Though utterly outgunned, Morgan put up his nautical dukes. Luckily, he was cunning. His crew converted a vessel into a fireship , meaning they equipped it with combustibles or explosives. To conceal the ploy, they fitted the ship with objects meant to resemble guns and disguised pieces of wood as people.
American National Biography. Josephine Tey's novel The Privateer dramatized Morgan's life. As they were heavily outgunned, one privateer suggested that a fire ship aimed at Espinosa's flagship, Magdalen would work. This time, he gave the commission directly to Morgan to take Spanish citizens prisoner in order to protect the island of Jamaica. A portion of all spoils obtained by the privateers was given to the sovereign or the issuing ambassador. Among them was his flagship, Satisfaction , which sank in during the campaign to sack Panama. Instead of sending out a flyer and allowing willing buccaneers of the region to come to him, Morgan sailed to the places where the most daring pirates could be found. Succeeded by Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle. Start your family tree now. In the s and s, in his capacity as an owner of three large slave plantations, Morgan led three campaigns against the Jamaican Maroons of Juan de Serras. As Morgan and his allies on the Assembly of Jamaica continued to deal with privateers and pirates, criticism of their action in London was fomented by two former governors of Jamaica, Carbery and Lynch. Things got even more complicated when they ran out of cattle to eat. Not only did his men loot the town, but they essentially held it for ransom, demanding and receiving , pesos in exchange for not burning the city to the ground. The Captain Morgan logo depicts him wearing a pirate-y hat and a pirate-y coat and practically yo-ho-ho-ing at you with his pirate-y eyes. Curtis, Wayne He is remembered as the greatest of the privateers, amassing huge fleets, attacking prominent targets, and being the worst enemy of the Spanish since Sir Francis Drake. After collecting the wealth of the town and ransoming its citizens, Morgan loaded the ships to return home. Tasked with completing that mission was Colonel Joseph Bradley, who rounded up men and formed a three-ship squadron. Many people associate Jamaica with Bob Marley and marijuana. Dawdy and Bonni define buccaneers as "originally castaway colonists usually French or English on Hispanio from French who survived by hunting or raising livestock",  although the historian Jon Latimer observes that the terms pirate and buccaneer have been interchangeable in English since the 17th century. Books [ edit ] Allen, H. Hans Jorien Morgan, named from his mother's great-grandfather. Using a word-of-mouth approach, he was able to acquire five hundred of the best pirates in the area. Allen, in his biography of Morgan, considers the privateer was the second-in-command to Captain Edward Mansvelt. Although Panama was at the time the richest city in New Spain, Morgan and his men obtained far less plunder than they had expected. Furthermore, Porto Bello was considered the center of Spanish trade in the Americas, so it contained warehouses of the goods and valuables of many wealthy merchants. The search for Satisfaction Shutterstock. The governor had already escaped with literal boatloads of treasure, so the heist wasn't as lucrative as expected, but Morgan got his revenge. On March 9, , he and his men attacked the La Barra fort, the main defense of Lake Maracaibo, and captured it without much difficulty. He was one of the most successful pirates of all time. Someone had tipped off the Spanish, who were ready to rumble by sea and land. With this in mind, a vote was taken and the crew decided that attacking a different settlement would be a safer and more lucrative alternative. He raided both cities and stripped them of their wealth before destroying a large Spanish squadron as he escaped. However, if surgeon Alexandre Exquemelin is to be believed, after the sacking of Panama City, Captain Morgan left his men in a lurch and made off with "the greatest and best part of the spoil, which had been concealed from them in the dividend. The rum that bears his name has been around since and originated in Jamaica, a nation Morgan invaded and where he later served as lieutenant governor. Scientific American. By , then-acting governor Morgan had fallen out of favour with King Charles II, who was intent on weakening the semi-autonomous Jamaican Council, and was replaced by long-time political rival Thomas Lynch. He wasn't quite a pirate Shutterstock. He met scant resistance, as many of the occupants had fled into the surrounding jungle. Not only was he never punished, but he was knighted and sent back to Jamaica as lieutenant governor. He spent five weeks in Gibraltar, and there was again evidence that torture was used to force residents to reveal hidden money and valuables. Sir Henry Morgan Listen. Born : c. With his death, the pirates who would follow would also use this same ploy, but with less successful results. Subsequent editions of his book were amended. Their boat bomb annihilated a Spanish vessel, and another warship was run aground and set ablaze to keep Morgan from capturing it. Before a riot between the French and English sailors could begin, Morgan arrested the English sailor, and promised the French sailors that the man would be hanged on his return to Port Royal. This activity can be copied directly into your Google Classroom, where you can use it for practice, as an assessment, or, to collect data. With information gained from a prisoner, the buccaneers were able to quickly destroy the first fort. By then, he was very rich and influential in Jamaica and had a great deal of land.
From his base in Port Royal , Jamaica, he raided settlements and shipping on the Spanish Main , becoming wealthy as he did so. With the prize money from the raids he purchased three large sugar plantations on the island. Much of Morgan's early life is unknown. He was born in Monmouthshire , [n 1] but it is not known how he made his way to the West Indies, or how he began his career as a privateer. He was probably a member of a group of raiders led by Sir Christopher Myngs in the early s during the Anglo-Spanish War. When diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of England and Spain worsened in , Modyford gave Morgan a letter of marque , a licence to attack and seize Spanish vessels. He raided both cities and stripped them of their wealth before destroying a large Spanish squadron as he escaped. In Morgan attacked Panama City , landing on the Caribbean coast and traversing the isthmus before he attacked the city, which was on the Pacific coast. The battle was a rout, although the privateers profited less than in other raids. To appease the Spanish, with whom the English had signed a peace treaty, Morgan was arrested and summoned to London in , but was treated as a hero by the general populace and the leading figures of government and royalty including Charles II. Morgan was appointed a Knight Bachelor in November and returned to the Colony of Jamaica shortly afterward to serve as the territory's Lieutenant Governor. He served on the Assembly of Jamaica until and on three occasions he acted as Governor of Jamaica in the absence of the post-holder. A memoir published by Alexandre Exquemelin , a former shipmate of Morgan's, accused the privateer of widespread torture and other offences; Morgan brought a libel suit against the book's English publishers and won, although the black picture Exquemelin portrayed of Morgan has affected history's view of the Welshman. He died in Jamaica on 25 August His life was romanticised after his death and he became the inspiration for pirate-themed works of fiction across a range of genres. Henry Morgan was born around in Wales, either in Llanrumney or Pencarn, both in Monmouthshire , between Cardiff and Newport  [n 1] [n 2] The historian David Williams , writing in the Dictionary of Welsh Biography , observes that attempts to identify his parents and antecedents "have all proved unsatisfactory",  although his will referred to distant relations. It is unknown how Morgan made his way to the Caribbean. He may have travelled to the Caribbean as part of the army of Robert Venables , sent by Oliver Cromwell as part of the Caribbean expedition against the Spanish in the West Indies in ,  or he may have served as an apprentice to a maker of cutlery for three years in exchange for the cost of his emigration. Other opportunities for financial gain were through trade or plunder of the Spanish Empire. It is probable that in the early s Morgan was active with a group of privateers led by Sir Christopher Myngs attacking Spanish cities and settlements in the Caribbean and Central America when England was at war with Spain. Sir Thomas Modyford had been appointed the Governor of Jamaica in February with instructions to limit the activities of the privateers; he made a proclamation against their activities on 11 June , but economic practicalities led to him reversing the policy by the end of the month. As the planting community of 5, was still new and developing, the revenue from the privateers was needed to avoid economic collapse. A portion of all spoils obtained by the privateers was given to the sovereign or the issuing ambassador. Modyford was impressed enough with the spoils to report back to the government that "Central America was the properest [ sic ] place for an attack on the Spanish Indies". The couple had no children. Hostilities between the English and Dutch in led to a change in government policy: colonial governors were now authorised to issue letters of marque against the Dutch. Sources differ about Morgan's activities in Allen, in his biography of Morgan, considers the privateer was the second-in-command to Captain Edward Mansvelt. In diplomatic relations between the kingdoms of England and Spain were worsening, and rumours began to circulate in Jamaica about a possible Spanish invasion. Modyford authorised privateers to take action against the Spanish, and issued a letter of marque to Morgan "to draw together the English privateers and take prisoners of the Spanish nation, whereby he might inform of the intention of that enemy to attack Jamaica, of which I have frequent and strong advice". Morgan's letter of marque gave him permission to attack Spanish ships at sea; there was no permission for attacks on land. Any plunder obtained from the attacks would be split between the government and the owners of the ships rented by the privateers. If the privateers stepped outside their official remit and raided a city, any resultant plunder would be retained by the privateers. Morgan and his men took the town, but the treasure obtained was less than hoped for. After the action, one of the English privateers quarrelled with one of his French shipmates and stabbed him in the back, killing him. Before a riot between the French and English sailors could begin, Morgan arrested the English sailor, and promised the French sailors that the man would be hanged on his return to Port Royal. Morgan kept his word and the sailor was hanged. The city was the third largest and strongest on the Spanish Main , and on one of the main routes of trade between the Spanish territories and Spain. Because of the value of the goods passing through its port, Porto Bello was protected by two castles in the harbour and another in the town. On 11 July Morgan anchored short of Porto Bello and transferred his men to 23 canoes, which they paddled to within three miles 4. They landed and approached the first castle from the landward side, where they arrived half an hour before dawn. They took the three castles and the town quickly. Exquemelin wrote that in order to take the third castle, Morgan ordered the construction of ladders wide enough for three men to climb abreast; when they were completed he "commanded all the religious men and women whom he had taken prisoners to fix them against the walls of the castle Thus many of the religious men and nuns were killed". The passage about the use of nuns and monks as a human shield was retracted from subsequent publications in England. Morgan and his men remained in Porto Bello for a month. Zahedieh records that there were no first-hand reports from witnesses that confirmed Exquemelin's claim of widespread rape and debauchery. Modyford sent the vessel to Morgan, who made it his flagship. A spark in the ship's powder magazine destroyed the ship and over of its crew. The loss of Oxford meant Morgan's flotilla was too small to attempt an attack on Cartagena. Since l'Olonnais and the French captain had visited Maracaibo, the Spanish had built the San Carlos de la Barra Fortress , 20 miles 32 km outside the city, on the approach. Talty states that the fortress was placed in an excellent position to defend the town, but that the Spanish had undermanned it, leaving only nine men to load and fire the fortress's 11 guns. A search soon found that the Spanish had left a slow-burning fuse leading to the fort's powder kegs as a trap for the buccaneers, which Morgan extinguished. Morgan arrived at Maracaibo to find the city largely deserted, its residents having been forewarned of his approach by the fortress's troops.