Nov 01, 2017 · Breast cancer is a metastatic cancer and can commonly transfer to distant organs such as the bone, liver, lung and brain, which mainly accounts for its incurability. Early diagnosis of the disease can lead to a good prognosis and a high survival rate.Cited by: 516
Sep 22, 2021 · of the breast. Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast.
Oct 24, 2017 · Read the full article. Living Life After Breast Cancer - Your Journey After Treatment. Today, there are more breast cancer survivors in the United States than any other group of cancer survivors: three million, to be exact. This means that breast cancer has probably touched the lives of you or a couple people you know.Estimated Reading Time: 6 mins
Feb 26, 2021 · Men with breast cancer may be more likely to die of the disease than women, particularly during the first 5 years after diagnosis, a new study suggests. The higher likelihood of death was linked in part to undertreatment and later diagnosis.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women and the second most common cause of cancer death in women in the U.S. Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.Cited by: 359
Women with tubular carcinoma generally have a better prognosis than women with more common types of invasive carcinoma. Pattern Analysis and application. Mammography is a widely used screening approach in the detecting of breast cancer and proved to help reduce the mortality effectively. Cancer Metastasis Rev. Genes related to breast cancer Lots of genes have been identified in relation to breast cancer. The test can show whether estrogen receptors in tumors are active and responsive to estrogen. Each treatment takes about 15 minutes[ 31 , 32 ]. Monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In mice, heart attacks accelerated breast tumor growth and human studies linked cardiac events with breast cancer recurrence, researchers reported. Cancer Genomics Research. Virus-mediated oncolysis Certain viruses, including adenovirus, and HSV-1 can infect the lyse tumor cells. The ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. Hormonal causes Alteration in harmonol level may precipitate breast cancer. Rojas K, Stuckey A. Family history has long been known to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Phone: ; Fax: ; E-mail: nc. Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. ILC begins in the milk glands lobules of the breast, but often spreads metastatizes to other regions of the body. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors of breast cancer: a historical perspective. MRI is another widely used screening tool for breast cancer. Previous NCI Directors. The ultrasonography is much more accurate if the operator is skilled and experienced. J Biomed Biotechnol. When given at the same time, two immune checkpoint inhibitors were ineffective against breast cancer growth in mice, a new study found. However this treatment option has been superseded by electron beam radiotherapy to the breast scar. Research Program Contacts. Dynamic interactions between the promoter and terminator regions of the mammalian BRCA1 gene. McGu ire W. Cancer Prevention Research. Life style and dietary cause Sedentary life style, high dietary intake of fat obesity particularly in postmenopausal women may cause breast cancer. Molecular carcinogenesis. Cleve Clin J Med. Potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, ductal comedocarcinoma. However, toxic side-effects like diarrhea and febrile neutropenia were common in pertuzumab-treated groups. Biomed Microdevices. Augmentation of Tumor Suppresser Genes More then 24 tumor suppresser genes have been identified, and mutations in these genes have been associated with a variety of neoplastic conditions. Although many biomarker-based trials have been performed in TNBC, none has been successful finally. It could be attended by starting and stopping of periods Menstrual Cycle , Pregnancy in early age, Hormonal replacement therapy, Use of oral pills etc[ 22 ]. Legal Requirements. Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors. Under the approval, the drug must be used in combination with an aromatase inhibitor. Ann Oncol. However, the reduction in mortality rate was not significant in women aged years Budget Proposal. International journal of environmental research and public health. The connective tissue which consists of fibrous and fatty tissue surrounds and holds everything together. However, most of the women in developing countries don't realize the importance of breast cancer prevention. The BRCA1 gene has been shown to form a loop between the promoter, introns, and terminator regions, which regulates the expression of this gene via interactions with its own promoter 25 , Childhood Cancers Research. The cancer cells are only in the lining of the ducts, and have not spread to other tissues in the breast. The oral contraceptives have been widely used since s and the formulations have been upgraded to reduce side-effects. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. The field of nanotechnology has rapidly evolved as evidenced by the fact that there are more than ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of nanotechnology based drug delivery carriers targeting cancer. Estrogen Both endogenous and exogenous estrogens are associated with the risk of breast cancer.
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Since last two decades, researches related to the breast cancer has lead to extraordinary progress in our understanding of the disease, resulting in more efficient and less toxic treatments. Increased public awareness and improved screening have led to earlier diagnosis at stages amenable to complete surgical resection and curative therapies. Consequently, survival rates for breast cancer have improved significantly, particularly in younger women. This article addresses the types, causes, clinical symptoms and various approach both non- drug such as surgery and radiation and drug treatment including chemotherapy, gene therapy etc. Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women and the second most common cause of cancer death in women in the U. Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Worldwide, breast cancer comprises Breast cancer is about times more common in women than in men, although males tend to have poorer outcomes due to delays in diagnosis. Cancer cells are very similar to cells of the organism from which they originated and have similar but not identical DNA and RNA. This is the eeason why they are not very often detected by thz immunz system, in particular, if it is weakened[ 1 ]. All thzse can produce mutations that may start cancer. The rate of DNA and RNA mutations can be too high under some conditions such as; unhealthy emironment due to radiation, chemicals, etc. In cancerous cells, thz process of cell division is disrupted and unregulated, resulting in cell proliferation and tumor growth. The normal cell cycle is as represented in figure 1. Usually, cancer is named after the body part in which it originated; thus, breast cancer refers to the erratic growth and proliferation of cells that originate in the breast tissue[ 9 ]. The breast is composed of two main types of tissues i. Glandular tissues house the milk-producing glands lobules and the ducts the milk passages while stromal tissues include fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. The breast is also made up of lymphatic tissue-immune system tissue that removes cellular fluids and waste[ 10 ]. There are several types of tumors that may develop within different areas of the breast. Most tumors are the result of benign non-cancerous changes within the breast. For example, fibrocystic change is a non-cancerous condition in which women develop cysts accumulated packets of fluid , fibrosis formation of scar-like connective tissue , lumpiness, and areas of thickening, tenderness, or breast pain[ 11 ]. Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts ductal cancers. Some begin in the cells that line the lobules lobular cancers , while a small number start in the other tissues[ 12 ]. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer cells that are confined to the ducts and do not invade surrounding fatty and connective tissues of the breast. Lobular carcinoma in situ LCIS is less common and considered a marker for increased breast cancer risk. Invasive Breast Cancer cells that break through the duct and lobular wall and invade the surrounding fatty and connective tissues of the breast. Oancer can be invasive without being metastatic spreading to the lymph nodes or other organs[ 13 ]. LCIS is a sharp increase in the number of cells within the milk glands lobules of the breast. For example, ductal comedocarcinoma. ILC is also known as invasive lobular carcinoma. ILC begins in the milk glands lobules of the breast, but often spreads metastatizes to other regions of the body. IDC begins in the milk ducts of the breast and penetrates the wall of the duct, invading the fatty tissue of the breast and possibly other regions of the body. Medullary carcinoma : Medullary carcinoma is an invasive breast cancer that forms a distinct boundary between tumor tissue and normal tissue. Mutinous carcinoma : Also called colloid carcinoma , mutinous carcinoma is a rare breast cancer formed by the mucus-producing cancer cells. Women with mutinous carcinoma generally have a better prognosis than women with more common types of invasive carcinoma. Tubular carcinoma : Tubular carcinomas are a special type of infiltrating invasive breast carcinoma. Women with tubular carcinoma generally have a better prognosis than women with more common types of invasive carcinoma. Phylloides tumors develop in the connective tissues of the breast and may be treated by surgical removal. Phylloides tumors are very rare; less than 10 women die of this type of breast cancer each year in the United States[ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased risk of getting breast cancer in the other breast[ 19 ]. If several members of patient's family have had particular types of cancer, patient may have an increased risk of developing breast cancer[ 19 , 20 ]. Family history has long been known to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Both maternal and paternal relatives are important. The risk is highest if the affected relative developed breast cancer at a young age, had cancer in both breasts, or if she is a close relative. First-degree relatives, mother, sister, daughter are most important in estimating risk. Several second-degree relatives grandmother, aunt with breast cancer may also increase risk.